We have all heard a reference to 420, and if you are reading this, you probably know what it means. But have you wondered about the real story behind 420? From whose mouth was 420 first uttered? And what was the meaning of 420 originally?
Some say 420 has to do with Bob Marley’s death. Other’s say it’s linked to Adolf Hitler’s birth.
Let’s debunk the most common myths about the world’s chillest holiday, and uncover the true origin of the phrase 420.
420 is deeply steeped in American pop culture and there are quite a few mentions in many classic movies including: Pineapple Express, Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle, Dazed and Confused, American Beauty, Harold & Kumar Escape from Guantanamo Bayand famously in Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction. Yes, it’s true. All of the clocks in Tarantino’s masterpiece are set to 4:20.
So 420 is prominent in films, but can we trace the origins of 420 to the silver screen? Unlikely, since the term 420 has been used since the early 1970s, way before Tarantino even picked up his first joint.
Does 420 come from literature? People are actually studying this stuff! According to one guy, there are references to 420 as a plant in H.P. Lovecraft’s short horror story “The Walls of Erix”. Apparently Mr. Lovecraft is the father of American horror fiction and a devotee of 420 — who knew? He refers to 420 in the story after the narrator experiences a mind altering event and looks back at the clock to find, to his shock, it’s STILL just 4:20.
So does “The Walls of Erix” double as a 420 origin story? Possibly, but there are more theories of the meaning of 420 out there, some even murkier than Lovecraft’s horror tale.
There are many alleged origins of 420. It’s kind of a cannabis Urban Legend with several “definitive” accounts of how we came to use this term. Some of the most interesting theories include:
There is even an alleged spiritual meaning in the Jewish faith. According to ancient Hebrew numerological science the Hebrew word for “smoke” equals 420 in the Gematria system.
Ok, so most of these were probably dreamed up by someone on 420. But some more legitimate explanations about the meaning of 420 exist out there.
The most popular explanation of how the term 420 came about comes from California. According to legend and Snopes, the term 420 was actually coined by a group of high school kids known as the Waldos way back in the 1970s. The name came from their hangout spot, a wall near their high school.
The most legitimate 420 urban legend we’ve heard goes like this…
Somehow the Waldos heard of a hidden patch of, ahem, grass in the nearby San Reyes peninsula and they agreed to meet at a statue of Louis Pasteur near the school to seek out the buds. The group would meet week after week in the same spot at the same time, piling into their car to smoke joint after joint on their way to search for the mystical marijuana crop that allegedly waited for them in the hills of San Reyes.
Originally, the group would say “420-Louis” as their code for scheduling a meeting. Eventually, they dropped the “Louis” because they found themselves using the term “420” to describe anything marijuana-related.
“I could say to one of my friends, I’d go, ‘420,’ and it was telepathic.” Said Steve Capper, one of the original Waldos. “He would know if I was saying, ‘Hey, do you wanna go smoke some?’ Or, ‘Do you have any?’ Or, ‘Are you stoned right now?’ It was kind of telepathic just from the way you said it.”
The Grateful Dead probably picked up the Waldos slang in Marin County and later popularized the term 420, forever immortalizing it in the American vernacular. Many people give Grateful Dead bassist and founding member Phil Lesh the credit for making the term fashionable, but the truth is 420 became synonymous with and spread from the Dead subculture. Needless to say The Dead talk and sing about 420 in several songs – and it was rumored (and later debunked) that they always stayed in room 420.
The term 420 reached an even higher level of usage in 1990, after Steve Bloom, an editor at High Times, saw the concept of 420 used on a Grateful Dead concert flyer. Staff on the magazine, long the leading publication on marijuana, adopted the phrase and 420 became a widespread counterculture holiday and concept.
So what are you doing to celebrate 420?
Together with our flagship brand Provacan, with an exchange of knowledge, we have found common ground with the Israel Medical Cannabis Nurses Association.
First, CiiTECH is proud to partner with and sponsor the first annual conference of The IMCNA- (Israeli Medical Cannabis Nursing Association).
Clifton Flack, CEO of CiiTECH said “in the UK we understand the potential value of nurses for the emerging CBD / Cannabis Oil Industry. Our foundations in Israel enable us to work with the best in the field, the IMCNA has the cannabis healthcare knowledge and caregiving experience our customers in the UK are in need of as they begin using Provacan CBD Products”.
Second, over the coming months we plan to roll out cannabis care solutions to our Provacan CBD customers in the UK. For our existing regular customers CiiTECH will subsidise the cost, new and potential customers will be able to get private and personal access to the IMCNA nursing network at privileged pricing.
The IMCNA was founded last year by Irit Avisar and Rachel Mayberrie both qualified nurses with years of medical cannabis experience and knowledge.
Irit said “The IMCNA is a non-profit organization established to improve the quality of care for medical cannabis patients. At the IMCNA we have created a proprietary education program content to advance cannabis caregiving skills within our healthcare industry.”
The UK is yet to implement a patient program similar to Israel, instead, a flourishing CBD industry has taken hold. CBD is a compound found in both regular cannabis and Hemp.
“Our customers demand of us the information we’re prohibited from and un-qualified to give. With the support of the IMCNA as an independent organisation allows us to transfer the wealth of medical cannabis knowledge from Israel direct into the hands of the British public. We’ll be able to offer real solutions to real problems” said Flack.
The Israel Medical Cannabis program
The Israel Medical Cannabis program has been active over 15 years in Israel with significant regulatory reform in 2016 enabling the expansion of both the patient program and the commercial market behind it. Currently, over 40,000 patients in Israel use medical cannabis to treat a range of conditions from; pain, migraine, crohns, cancer, autism, and anxiety.
The UK CBD Industry
In November 2018 the Health Ministry approved specialist doctors to prescribe appropriately researched cannabis-derived medications. These products are currently limited to pharmaceutical drugs; Sativex, Epidiolex, Dronabinol, and Nabilone.
The UK does, however, have over 500,000 regular users of CBD oils and related products. Scientists tell us the anti-inflammatory nature of CBD makes it the true ‘medical cannabis’ compound within the plant. CBD is found in Hemp, a particular group of cannabis strains that are legal across the EU. In the UK, CBD / Cannabis Oil is sold without a prescription as a food supplement.
The IMCNA- the Israeli Medical Cannabis Nursing Association (RA), was founded in March 2018 by Irit Avisar RN, LLB, MHA and Rachel Mayberrie RN, BSN. The nursing service at IMCNA is here to reduce the learning curve and save the patient’s money.
We are proud to offer cannabis orientation classes and private nursing educational sessions for all patients. Our goal is to educate and empower the patient so that he understands how to adequately and safely use this medicine.
Provacan by CiiTECH
CiiTECH was founded in 2016 to serve the need for billions of consumers with restricted access to medical-grade non-psychoactive cannabis-derived food supplements.
Developed in Israel in collaboration with leading scientists and chemists, the Provacan range of CBD products includes; cannabis oil, lozenges, balm, and e-liquid. Produced under EU food supplement directives and UK healthcare standards, CiiTECH produces and markets the Provacan range to the world.
As yet unpublished, but much publicised part 1 of the British Gov’t review on the potential of cannabis to be medicalized, rescheduled and prescribe for usage.
The following is an excerpt from the introduction to the report.
Interest is growing across the United Kingdom, and indeed the world, into the therapeutic benefit of ‘cannabis based medicinal products’* in the treatment of illness. In this review, I summarise the evidence for the Home Secretary as a “review of contemporary reviews”.
As the Chief Medical Advisor to the UK Government, I have examined evidence of the medicinal benefit of cannabis based products to advise on the appropriateness of their place within Schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 and subject to designation under s7(4) of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
This evidence review is specifically for medicinal use, on prescription; it does not address the recreational use of these products. Cannabis has many active chemicals and only cannabis or derivatives produced for medical use can be assumed to have the correct concentrations and ratios. Using other forms, such as grown or street cannabis, as medicine for therapeutic benefit is potentially dangerous. The evidence that cannabis and some of its derivatives can be addictive and harmful has been known for some time and is not disputed by recent science, so I believe the reasons it is a controlled drug in the UK stand.
There is now, however, conclusive evidence of the therapeutic benefit of cannabis based medicinal products for certain medical conditions and reasonable evidence of therapeutic benefit in several other medical conditions. This evidence has been reviewed in whole or part, and considered robust, by some of the leading international scientific and regulatory bodies, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO). As Schedule 1 drugs by definition have little or no therapeutic potential, it is therefore now clear that from a scientific point of view keeping cannabis based medicinal products in Schedule 1 is very difficult to defend. Moreover, I believe that it would not make sense to move cannabis and its derivatives out of Schedule 1 whilst leaving synthetic cannabinoids, which the evidence suggests have potentially greater therapeutic benefit and less potential for harm, in Schedule 1. I, therefore, recommend that the whole class of cannabis based medicinal products be moved out of Schedule 1.
Moving these drugs out of Schedule 1 would allow them to be prescribed under controlled conditions by registered practitioners for medical benefit. In addition, moving the whole class of cannabis based medicinal products out of Schedule 1 will allow the evidence base on the therapeutic benefits associated with using this class of drugs to be improved through research, maximising benefits to patients.
Cannabis Trade Association (CTA) spokesman has been quoted as saying that “New Cannabis Laws And Regulations will be set into stone across the EU within 2 years.
Is the UK a dark horse in the race to build a legal cannabis industry? With over 500,000 regular users of every cannabinoid (minus THC) without a single new line of legislation being written, it could be a positive signal.
In the UK, the use of cannabis as medicine has been headline news in recent weeks. Billy, Britain’s very own Charlotte Figi has stretched the headlines, bent the home office and garnered the passion of the people.
CiiTECH is a UK / Israeli collaboration, registered and operating out of the UK marketing proprietary Israeli developed CBD products. Provacan CBD, our flagship range is based on years of medical cannabis knowledge and expertise in Israel.
CiiTECH is a full member of the Cannabis Trades Association which represents responsible and ethical companies operating within the law. It has announced a new system of regulation for cannabis products, developed in conjunction with two government departments which it is hoped will become law within two years.
The Cannabis Products Directive (CPD) is a framework for regulation and licensing of all cannabis and cannabinoid products. It is an initiative of the Cannabis Trades Association (CTA) developed in conjunction with the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
This week the CPD has been translated and submitted to all 28 member states of the EU by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA).
It is anticipated that with the sponsorship of two government agencies, the FSA and MHRA, the CPD will become UK law within the next two years and will relieve the Home Office of the burden of the cannabis regulation and licensing process, placing it in expert hands.
The CPD will establish an independent regulatory body covering all parts of the cannabis supply chain from seeds and genetics through to end products. Its first chief executive, Ms. Fiona Pengilly, a highly experienced administrator, has already been appointed.
The structure of the CPD is based on the TPD (Tobacco Products Directive), successful EU legislation which came into force on 19 May 2014 and became applicable in the EU Member States on 20 May 2016. The plan to implement the CPD into legislation is based on the similar path taken with gas regulation by CORGI which becomes the Gas Safe Register, part of the Health and Safety Executive.
The CPD consists of five parts:
CTA members who sell CBD and hemp products are already working in accordance with parts 1 – 3. Parts 4 and 5 will be introduced in accordance with legislation.
Growers, producers, manufacturers, and sellers will all have to be registered as well each individual product. Approved laboratories will conduct testing and all registrants will be subject to regular inspection.
Each product will have a Cannabis Product Information File (CPIF) and an assigned ‘Responsible Person’ who will ensure that the product remains compliant and updates the CPIF.
Consumers will know that products have been produced and tested in accordance with regulations and will be assured of quality and safety.
Source: Cannabis Magazine.
חשיפה: בתשובה לפניית מגזין קנאביס הבוקר מודיעה המשטרה לראשונה באופן רשמי כי מבחינתה הרכיב סיבידי איננו נחשב לסם מסוכן על פי פקודת הסמים. “אתם יכולים להזמין סיבידי אם זה נקי ללא תיהיסי,” קובע עו”ד מומחה בפלילים.
מסוכן על פי פקודת הסמים. “אתם יכולים להזמין סיבידי אם זה נקי ללא תיהסי,” קובע עו”ד מומחה בפלילים.
לראשונה מודיעה משטרת ישראל כי הרכיב הלא-פסיכואקטיבי בקנאביס, סיבידי (‘קנאבידיול’), איננו נחשב מבחינתם לסם מסוכן בפקודת הסמים.
בעקבות פניית מגזין קנאביס למשטרה היום (ב’) נמסר כי “חומר ה-סיבידי הנו חומר המצוי בתוך צמח הקנאביס ואינו מוגדר כסם ובטח לא כסם מסוכן בפקודת הסמים”.
זאת לדברי המשטרה בניגוד לצמח הקנאביס “שלעצמו מוגדר בפקודת הסמים ולכן על פי חוק, אסור להחזיק, לגדל ולסחור בו”.
ואכן בפקודת הסמים מופיע אמנם הרכיב הפסיכואקטיבי תיהיסי בשמו כסם מסוכן ואסור, לעומת ה-סיבידי שאינו מופיע בשמו.
קביעה זו של המשטרה מנוגדת לפרשנות של המחלקה המשפטית של משרד הבריאות על פיה נקבע כי סיבידי , מאחר והוא “חלק בצמח הקנאביס”, נחשב גם הוא לסם מסוכן ואסור על פי הפקודה.
כזכור לאחרונה השיבה המשטרה קפסולות סיבידי שהוזמנו על ידי אזרח ישראלי והוחרמו על ידי שוטרים, תוך קביעה כי “לאחר בדיקה אין מניעה להחזרת הכדורים מסוג סיבידי לפונה”.
בתשובה לפנייתנו היום מדגישה שוב המשטרה כי “כדורי ה-סיבידי הוחזרו לנשוא פנייתך שכן כפי שציינו, אינו מוגדר כסם”.
למעשה על פי פרשנות של עו”ד יניב פרץ, המומחה בפלילים, מאחר ו-סיבידי אינו מופיע בפקודת הסמים בשמו, הוא אכן מותר – וזאת למרות ההגדרה כי “כל חלק בצמח הקנאביס אינו חוקי”.
“אין כל עבירה פלילית בהחזקת חומר מסוג סיבידי וכל עוד פקודת הסמים נותרת חסרה והמחוקק לא פועל לעדכנה בעניין החזקת חומר מסוג סיבידי מפורשות, לא יכול לקום חיוב בפלילים בגין החזקת חומר זה,” קבע בשיחה עם המגזין.
“אתם יכולים להזמין סיבידי אם זה נקי ללא תיהיסי כמו בקפסולות שהוזמנו,” סיכם.
משמעות הדבר למעשה, לדבריו, היא שמעתה ניתן לכאורה להזמין מוצרי סיבידי , שמנים, קפסולות, משחות וכד’ – כל עוד אינם מכילים תיהיסי .
It has long been argued that persistent abuse of cannabis can lead to mental health issues. One of the standard arguments supporting the prohibition of the last 8 decades, and one which cannabis advocates have long argued against since many neurological health issues are now being treated with cannabis. Thanks to a recent study, we may now have elucidation on the topic. And the key is CBD!
In a recent clinical study, CBD repaired negative effects of regular cannabis use on a certain brain region In an open study with 18 regular cannabis users, who took 200 mg of CBD daily for about 10 weeks, the volume of certain areas in the hippocampus of the brain, was increased. Heavy cannabis use may have a negative effect on these areas.
The hypothesis: Chronic cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While adverse impacts of cannabis use are generally attributed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, emerging naturalistic evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective and may ameliorate brain harms associated with cannabis use, including protection from hippocampal volume loss.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen regular cannabis users participated in a ∼10-week open-label pragmatic trial involving daily oral administration of 200 mg CBD, with no change to their ongoing cannabis use requested
Conclusions: Our findings suggest a restorative effect of CBD on the subicular and CA1 subfields in current cannabis users, especially those with greater lifetime exposure to cannabis
CBD and Addiction
CBD reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers
The endocannabinoid role system in the addiction of nicotine is gaining acknowledgment. There was a conduction of a pilot study that was aimed at assessing the effect of CBD usage for those smokers that wished to quit smoking. 24 smokers were given CBD inhalers when they felt like smoking. In that same treatment week, the placebo-treated smokers showed no change of the number of cigarettes smoked by the affected, while the CBD treated smokers showed a significant change as they were able to reduce the smoking number of people by 40%. These data hence show that CBD is a perfect treatment for the people that have a nicotine addiction.
Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine withdrawal
The sudden discontinuation of nicotine does induce a withdrawal syndrome in the animals that do depend on nicotine, being inconsistent with somatic and signs that are effective, avoiding it leads to the maintenance of drugs. While the fatty acids blockade exacerbates responses of withdrawal in the mice that depend on nicotine, the monoacylglycerol lipase role in the withdrawal of nicotine is still unexplored. Therefore, this study suggests that inhibition of MAGL may be a target for treating nicotine dependence.
CBD inhibits the reward facilitating morphine effect
Cannabidiol induces the rodent’s central system. It has its effects on the stimulation of the brain reward and the facilitating of reward effects of the abuses of drugs has not been examined yet. The findings show that the cannabidiol does not remove the property of reinforcement in the paradigm of ICSS at any of the tested doses. The effects were mediated by dorsal raphe receptors. This result does suggest that interferences of Cannabidiol with the brain mechanisms of reward that are responsible for the expressing of properties of acute reinforcement thus showing that it may be used clinically in attenuating the rewarding effects of opioids.
Differential cannabinol effects and cannabidiol on THC induced responses during the abstinence in the rats’ that depend on morphine.
The same cannabinol dose (CBN) or CBD further raised the precipitated abstinence attenuation sign which were observed in the rats that depend on morphine which were also given an acute delta dose. Contrasting, behavior of rotational behavior that is usually observed in THC rats that have undergone treatment during the absence of morphine was not raised by the CBN but the CBD potentiated it. These data gives an illustration of the differences that exist between Cannabinoids while they are interacting with the Delta 9 THC which can be so relevant to the available clinical usage of cannabis.
Impact of Cannabis during stabilization on methadone maintenance treatment
The cannabis objective rates were high when there was an induction of methadone, drastically dropping by following the stabilization of the dose. The cannabis use history correlated with its usage during the MMT however, it did not have a negative impact on the induction process of the methadone. The data of the pilot also gave a suggestion that opiate withdrawal objective ratings lessen in the patients of MMT by the use of cannabis during the stabilization process. These findings may touch on the intervention of the novel to be employed during the treatment of opiate dependency which mostly aims at the system interactions of the cannabinoid opioid.
Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States
The overdose of opioid analgesic mortality still continues to increase in the United States of America; this is facilitated by the increased chronic pain prescribers. Due to the fact that chronic pain being main medical cannabis induction, the laws that give them access to the cannabis of medicine may interfere with overdose to the opioid analgesics in those states that have accepted to enact them. The objective of this study is to try and determine the association that exists between the state medical presence laws and mortality of the opioid analgesic. The results were that three of the states inclusive of California had these laws of medical cannabis in use. The other ten states inclusive of Alaska put in use these laws of medicine in the year1999-2010, those states that have this law had a 24% lower opioid rate compared with those states without the laws of medical cannabis associates themselves with a slightly lower level of state opioid overdose rates of mortality. An enhanced investigation is needed to give a determination of how the laws of medical cannabis can interact with those policies that are aimed to prevent the overdose of the opioid analgesic.
CBD for the cannabis withdrawal treatment
The cannabis withdrawal in the addictive users is usually followed by the increase of anxiety, appetite loss, and irritability alongside with restlessness. The tolerate cannabis together with cannabis withdrawal symptoms are interpreted to be the CB1 receptors results. Its case summary shows that there is a woman aged 19 years who was diagnosed with cannabis withdrawal symptoms and got the treatments of the CBD for 10 consecutive days. The symptom assessments of a daily basis showed the sign that the significant withdrawal was no more, also symptoms like anxiety and dissociative lacked when the girl received this treatment such a positive sign and cure from the CBD. The CBD can be used when treating any individual that has problems to do with the Cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
CLINICAL STUDY RESOURCES:
What is Antibiotic Resistance?
Antibiotic resistance is considered to be the largest threat ever to global health, development, food security and sustainability. This may affect any person, regardless of country, ethnicity or social status. It is a natural process and is caused by the misuse of antibiotics in both animals and humans. These infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms are harder to treat. The drugs we have are becoming less effective, and there are no new drugs being discovered. These drug resistance microorganisms cause longer hospital stays, increased mortality and higher medical costs. This resistance leads to the creation of ‘superbugs’ that are almost impossible to treat.
Antibiotic activity of CBD (Cannabidiol)
The minimum inhibitory concentration (the least amount of drug required to stop a bacterial colony from growing) of cannabidiol for the bacteria streptococci and staphylococci in broth medium is about 1-5 mg/ml. at this range, both the compounds are bactericidal. Media that contain serum greatly reduce the activity. (4% to 5% serum-containing media have a MIC of about 50 mg/ml). Most gram-negative bacteria are resistant to cannabidiol. (This has been the case for many antibiotics).
What are antibiotics?
These are drugs used to treat and prevent bacterial infections. They include penicillins, which were the first antibiotics to be discovered. We also have sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and many more groups.
How resistance develops
It is important to remember that it is the bacteria and not humans that develop resistance to antibiotics. When these resistant bacteria infect humans or animals, they are harder to treat with conventional medicines.
There are many reasons as to why bacteria become resistant to the drugs that previously had an effect on them. Key among these reasons are mutations and acquiring genes for enzymes that break down the drug into inactive compounds. This is the major reason behind the resistance to penicillin, the novel antibiotic. These mutations are acquired from other bacteria in the environment in many ways, and the resistant species are propagated. This resistant can also be spontaneous. Other reasons involve the pathways of the drug within the bacterial cell. There can be pumps that remove the drug from the inside of the cell, or there may be reduced penetration of the drug into the bacterial cell. The bacteria may change its metabolism, or change the active site of the drug it develops resistance to. All these methods have been identified to be the major links to antibiotic resistance.
Cannabis contains antibacterial agents
For some time now, it has been known that marijuana has some cannabinoids that are antibacterial. The potential of these cannabinoids to address the scourge of antibiotic resistance is still under investigation, but the results are promising. These antibacterial cannabinoids include all the five major cannabinoids. These are cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol. These have shown some potency against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are clinically relevant. This discovery makes cannabinoids a newer discovered antibiotic in these tough times.
The bacteria studied were, however, remarkably tolerant to the prenyl moiety (in normal cannabinoids) compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids). The modification of the cannabinoids by methylation and acetylation of certain phenolic hydroxyls, introducing the second prenyl moiety and esterifying the carboxylic groups of pre-cannabinoids were actually detrimental for the antibacterial activity. This was the case from the research conducted in Università del Piemonte Orientale in Italy.
What is CBD?
CBD is the short form of the name cannabidiol. This is a compound found in the Cannabis sativa plant. It is one among the other 113 cannabinoids found in this plant. Cannabidiol makes up to 40% of cannabis extracts and has been studied for many different uses. According to the U.S Food and Drug Administration, products that contain cannabidiol are not defined as dietary supplements as they have been studied as a new drug, although it is still marketed as dietary supplements.
Taking cannabidiol is by mouth. It is used by many people for bipolar disorder, anxiety, and muscle disorders such as dystonia, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Some also inhale it to help quit smoking.
The major active ingredient in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabidiol is a compound that is insoluble in water but dissolves in many organic solvents such as pentane. It appears colorless and crystalline at room temperature. It can be oxidized to Quinone if it is in strongly basic media then exposed to air. It has been synthesized successfully in the laboratory.
Tackling the epidemic
Tackling the antibiotic resistance scourge requires the efforts of everyone, from you as an individual, health professionals, policymakers, those in the health sector and those in the agricultural sector. Individuals are key in this fight. Individuals should ensure that they do not misuse antibiotics, and only take them when prescribed by a medical professional. Always following the health worker’s advice on taking antibiotics and ensuring you complete the entire dose prescribed is key. Never share leftover antibiotics!
Health professionals should also ensure that they handle patients in the cleanest way possible, and to prescribe antibiotics when necessary and report any resistant organisms encountered to the surveillance teams. They should also educate their patients on safer practices to avoid infections.
Those in the agricultural sector should only give antibiotics as prescribed by a veterinary doctor. These antibiotics should also not be used as growth promoters or prophylaxis in healthy animals.
Remember that when we will fail to treat any bacterial infection with all available drugs, we will all be at risk.
CLINICAL STUDY RESOURCES:
CBD and Anorexia
Medication with leptin, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids
Current literature reviews show that leptin may have therapeutic potentials to promote the restoration of menstrual cycles in weight-restored patients. It can prevent osteoporosis in chronic patients, and reduce motor restlessness in patients who are severely hyperactive.
Anorexia nervosa is commonly referred to simply as Anorexia. This is an eating disorder that is characterized by the intense fear of gaining weight, an abnormally low weight, with a distorted perception of body weight. This is a psychiatric disorder with the highest mortality rates. Those suffering from this condition place a very high value on controlling their shape and weight and result in taking some extreme even harmful methods to do so. This often tends to significantly interfere with their life. The evidence to manage this condition is still limited.
The exact causes of anorexia are unknown. Researchers have come up with several reasons to explain why this condition occurs in some people. The exact cause may be a combination of psychological, biological, and environmental factors.
Some of the people with anorexia may have traits of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These make it easier, to stick to strict diets and even forgo food when hungry. They also may have an extreme desire for perfectionism. This drives them to think that they are not thin enough. Also, they may have high anxiety levels and restrict eating to manage this.
There may be a genetic predisposition to this condition, although the exact genes involved may not be known yet. There are people with a genetic tendency toward perfectionism, perseverance, and sensitivity. All these are traits that have been associated with causing and maintaining anorexia.
Due to the emphasis on thinness by modern western culture, peer pressure may influence people to want to be thin using all means. This particularly happens to young girls. Thinness has been associated with success, and worth, especially among women. It is for this reason that there are more females with this disorder.
Risk factors for this disorder are more common in girls and women. Boys and men, however, have started developing eating disorders too. It is more common among teenagers, as their bodies are undergoing changes in puberty, although people of any age can develop the disorder. Other risk factors include genetics, dieting and starvation, and transitions in life such as a new school or moving.
There are physical symptoms, complications, behavioral and emotional issues that result from this condition. Physical signs are usually associated with starvation. These symptoms, however, may be difficult to recognize at times. They include thin appearance, fatigue, insomnia, abnormal blood counts, dizziness and fainting, absence of menstruation, extreme weight loss, constipation, dry yellowish skin, intolerance to cold, low blood pressure, dehydration and irregular heart rhythms, excessive exercising, severe restriction of food intake and self-inducing vomiting to get rid of food, irritability, flat moods and avoiding eating in public. This list is inconclusive as there are many more symptoms.
This is done using a team approach. Hospitalization may be necessary if there are severe complications. The primary care doctor will provide medical care, and monitor the gain in weight and calorie needs. A psychologist or mental health professional can work with you to develop behavioral strategies to regain normal weight. A dietician offers guidance to get back to regular eating habits. Your family will be more involved in supporting you and ensuring you maintain normal eating habits.
The role played by endocannabinoids in eating disorders
The endocannabinoid system has been known to be a modulator of several physiological functions, among them hedonic aspects of feeding. Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors are expressed widely in brain regions that control food intake, energy balance, and reward. Studies show that CB1 agonists have orexigenic effects, enhance appetite and increase the reward value of food. It has been hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system defects are key in these eating disorders, as well as obesity. Therefore the clinical development of a drug that modulates the endocannabinoid system is expected to achieve results in eating disorders treatment.
Cancer cachexia and cannabinoids
Cachexia is extreme muscle wasting. Anorexia and cachexia have been diagnosed in about two-thirds of cancer patients with advanced disease. These are independent risk factors for mortality and morbidity. The more significant inhibiting factors to quality of life in cancer patients has been described to be anorexia, vomiting, and nausea. These are even considered worse than pain. In 1986, THC was licensed to be used as an antiemetic drug, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
Clinical studies of THC have also shown a significant stimulation in appetite in cancer and HIV positive patients, and an increase in body weight.
The appetite-stimulating effects of cannabis itself have been well documented in circumstantial doses. It has also been noted that cannabis is better tolerated than THC alone, due to the fact that it contains other cannabinoids, which antagonize the psychotropic effects of THC. They, however, do not inhibit the appetite stimulation by THC. This has necessitated the need to compare the effectiveness of whole plant extracts and THC.
CLINICAL STUDY RESOURCES:
(Reuters Health) – More than two-thirds of cannabis dispensaries recommend that pregnant women use marijuana to treat morning sickness even though doctors advise against it because of safety concerns, a U.S. study suggests.
While cannabis and other drugs are not tested in pregnant women to avoid any unintended harm to mothers and babies, animal research to date has linked marijuana use during pregnancy to an increased risk of underweight and premature infants as well as neurological defects.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists discourages doctors from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes while women are trying to conceive, pregnant, or nursing their babies.
“Given the concern for fetal harm with maternal cannabis use, women should utilize nausea medications prescribed by a physician for treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, and should not use cannabis for this,” said senior study author Dr. Torri Metz of the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora.
“First-line medical therapy for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is vitamin B6 and doxylamine,” Metz said by email. “This combination has been studied extensively and there is no concern for fetal harm, and there are numerous other agents that can also be prescribed if the first-line therapy fails.”
As more U.S. states legalize marijuana, the concern is mounting in the medical community that many people including pregnant women may mistakenly assume that using the drug is risk-free, researchers note in Obstetrics & Gynecology.
For the current study, researchers posing as pregnant women with morning sickness called 400 randomly selected cannabis dispensaries in Colorado, one of about 30 U.S. states that have legalized some form of marijuana sales. Overall, 69 percent of the dispensaries recommended cannabis to help pregnant women relieve this nausea, the study found.
Medical marijuana dispensaries were even more likely than other cannabis retailers to recommend the drug to pregnant women: 83 percent of medical dispensaries did this, compared to slightly more than 60 percent of other dispensaries.
Most of the people women spoke to at the dispensaries recommended cannabis for use in pregnancy based on their personal opinion, and 36 percent stated that the drug is safe in pregnancy.
While 82 percent of the dispensaries ultimately advised women to speak to a healthcare provider, only 32 percent made this recommendation without prompting.
One limitation of the study is that it’s possible mystery callers might get different advice by phone than pregnant women might get in person at dispensaries, the study team acknowledges.
Still, the results are concerning because medical marijuana laws prohibit dispensing cannabis to pregnant women, said Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Bethesda, Maryland.
“One issue is that dispensaries may not have the proper training, and how women got the prescriptions is another issue because this should not be prescribed for pregnant women,” Volkow, who wasn’t involved in the study, said in a telephone interview.
Another problem is that scientists don’t know how different types and amounts of cannabis use might impact pregnant women and their babies,” said Kelly Young-Wolff, a researcher at Kaiser Permanente Northern California in Oakland who wasn’t involved in the study.
“The health effects of cannabis use in pregnancy may differ depending on the mode of administration (e.g., vaping versus smoking), cannabis potency, trimester of cannabis exposure, and concurrent use of other substances, factors that we are just beginning to include in research on the health effects of cannabis use in pregnancy,” Young-Wolff said by email.
While cannabis can indeed ease nausea, most of the research in this area has focused on cancer patients who have nausea as a side effect of chemotherapy, said Marcel Bonn-Miller of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
“I would not advise pregnant women to use cannabis for nausea, especially because we already have a number of good treatment options,” Bonn-Miller, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email. “There are just too many risks and unknowns at this stage.”
SOURCE:Obstetrics & Gynecology, online May 9, 2018.
TERPENES AND ENTOURAGE EFFECT
How does CBD work?
CBD is used widely all over the world these days, as an alternative treatment to a lot of diseases and illnesses while improving the quality of life. A lot of common and serious diseases are treated using CBD, for example, diabetes, nausea, Parkinson, epilepsy, depression, osteoporosis, spinal injury, glaucoma, MS and Crohn’s disease.
What are Terpenes?
Terpenes are basically molecules that spread fragrance and are a main part of the resin. They are a part of almost all the essential oils and emit fragrance in them. Besides this, they also have a lot of health-related benefits and have caught the scientists’ attention all across the globe due to their unlimited benefits and therapeutic effects.
What is the entourage effect
The relationship between CBD and Terpenes is commonly known as the Entourage Effect. The cannabinoids and terpenes, both have amazing effects on our bodies. Although they have their own unique properties, but they do not work at their best when used alone, but when combined, they work like a complete medication and a therapeutic programme. They improve the blood circulation of our body, improve the cortical activity, have antibiotic properties and therefore, kill the harmful bacteria that may cause severe infection, kill the pathogens damaging the respiratory tract, and in addition to this, they also fight depression, anxiety, epilepsy, and addiction.
The entourage effect was discovered back in the 1960s when BBC hosted a programme where they did an interesting experiment to find out the results of using the cannabinoids and terpenes together, and alone.
They gave a high dose of THC to one of their reporters and noticed the after-effects. They noticed that the reporter had feelings of sadness and depression after being given the THC dose alone. Then, they combined a dose of CBD and THC together to find out the results and surprisingly, the reporter became extremely happy and started laughing uncontrollably. It was then found out that for good results, it is very important to group both of them together.
Here are a few main conditions that CBD and Terpenes help you with:
Although it is very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle by staying active and eating clean and healthy, using CBD oils in addition to it works wonders as it improves your overall health.